PHP is a server-side scripting language designed primarily for web development but also used as a general-purpose programming language. Originally created by Rasmus Lerdorf in 1994, the PHP reference implementation is now produced by The PHP Development Team. PHP originally stood for Personal Home Page, but it now stands for the recursive acronym PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor. PHP code may be embedded into HTML code, or it can be used in combination with various web template systems, web content management systems and web frameworks. PHP code is usually processed by a PHP interpreter implemented as a module in the web server or as a Common Gateway Interface (CGI) executable. The web server combines the results of the interpreted and executed PHP code, which may be any type of data, including images, with the generated web page. PHP code may also be executed with a command-line interface (CLI) and can be used to implement standalone graphical applications. The standard PHP interpreter, powered by the Zend Engine, is free software released under the PHP License. PHP has been widely ported and can be deployed on most web servers on almost every operating system and platform, free of charge. The PHP language evolved without a written formal specification or standard until 2014, leaving the canonical PHP interpreter as a de facto standard. Since 2014 work has gone on to create a formal PHP specification.
Laravel is a free, open-source PHP web framework, created by Taylor Otwell and intended for the development of web applications following the model-view-controller (MVC) architectural pattern. Some of the features of Laravel are a modular packaging system with a dedicated dependency manager, different ways for accessing relational databases, utilities that aid in application deployment and maintenance, and its orientation toward syntactic sugar. As of March 2015, Laravel is regarded as one of the most popular PHP frameworks, together with Symfony2, Nette, CodeIgniter, Yii2 and other frameworks. The source code of Laravel is hosted on GitHub and licensed under the terms of MIT License.
Docker is an open-source project that automates the deployment of Linux applications inside software containers. Quote of features from Docker web pages: Docker containers wrap up a piece of software in a complete filesystem that contains everything it needs to run: code, runtime, system tools, system libraries – anything you can install on a server. This guarantees that it will always run the same, regardless of the environment it is running in. Docker provides an additional layer of abstraction and automation of operating-system-level virtualization on Linux. Docker uses the resource isolation features of the Linux kernel such as cgroups and kernel namespaces, and a union-capable file system such as aufs and others to allow independent "containers" to run within a single Linux instance, avoiding the overhead of starting and maintaining virtual machines. The Linux kernel's support for namespaces mostly isolates an application's view of the operating environment, including process trees, network, user IDs and mounted file systems, while the kernel's cgroups provide resource limiting, including the CPU, memory, block I/O and network. Since version 0.9, Docker includes the libcontainer library as its own way to directly use virtualization facilities provided by the Linux kernel, in addition to using abstracted virtualization interfaces via libvirt, LXC (Linux Containers) and systemd-nspawn.
MySQL is an open-source relational database management system (RDBMS). Its name is a combination of "My", the name of co-founder Michael Widenius' daughter, and "SQL", the abbreviation for Structured Query Language. The MySQL development project has made its source code available under the terms of the GNU General Public License, as well as under a variety of proprietary agreements. MySQL was owned and sponsored by a single for-profit firm, the Swedish company MySQL AB, now owned by Oracle Corporation. For proprietary use, several paid editions are available, and offer additional functionality. MySQL is a central component of the LAMP open-source web application software stack (and other "AMP" stacks). LAMP is an acronym for "Linux, Apache, MySQL, Perl/PHP/Python". Applications that use the MySQL database include: TYPO3, MODx, Joomla, WordPress, phpBB, MyBB, and Drupal. MySQL is also used in many high-profile, large-scale websites, including Google (though not for searches), Facebook, Twitter, Flickr, and YouTube.
MariaDB is a community-developed fork of the MySQL relational database management system intended to remain free under the GNU GPL. It is notable for being led by the original developers of MySQL, who forked it due to concerns over its acquisition by Oracle. Contributors are required to share their copyright with the MariaDB Foundation. MariaDB intends to maintain high compatibility with MySQL, ensuring a "drop-in" replacement capability with library binary equivalency and exact matching with MySQL APIs and commands. It includes the XtraDB storage engine for replacing InnoDB, as well as a new storage engine, Aria, that intends to be both a transactional and non-transactional engine perhaps even included in future versions of MySQL. Its lead developer is Michael "Monty" Widenius, one of the founders of MySQL AB and the founder of Monty Program AB. On 16 January 2008, MySQL AB announced that it had agreed to be acquired by Sun Microsystems for approximately $1 billion. The acquisition completed on 26 February 2008. MariaDB is named after Monty's younger daughter Maria, similar to how MySQL is named after his other daughter My.
Express.js, or simply Express, is a web application framework for Node.js, released as free and open-source software under the MIT License. It is designed for building web applications and APIs. It is the de facto standard server framework for Node.js. The original author, TJ Holowaychuk, described it as a Sinatra-inspired server, meaning that it is relatively minimal with many features available as plugins. Express is the backend part of the MEAN stack, together with MongoDB database and AngularJS frontend framework. In June 2014, rights to manage the project were acquired by StrongLoop. StrongLoop was acquired by IBM in September 2015; in January 2016, IBM announced that it would place Express.js under the stewardship of the Node.js Foundation incubator.
Yii is an open source, object-oriented, component-based MVC PHP web application framework. Yii is pronounced as "Yee" or and in Chinese it means "simple and evolutionary" and it can be acronym for "Yes It Is!".
Symfony is a PHP web application framework and a set of reusable PHP components/libraries. Symfony was published as free software on October 18, 2005 and released under the MIT license.
MongoDB (from humongous) is a free and open-source cross-platform document-oriented database program. Classified as a NoSQL database program, MongoDB uses JSON-like documents with schemas. MongoDB is developed by MongoDB Inc. and is free and open-source, published under a combination of the GNU Affero General Public License and the Apache License.
Redis is a software project that implements data structure servers. It is open-source, networked, in-memory, and stores keys with optional durability.
The Apache HTTP Server, colloquially called Apache, is the world's most used web server software. Originally based on the NCSA HTTPd server, development of Apache began in early 1995 after work on the NCSA code stalled. Apache played a key role in the initial growth of the World Wide Web, quickly overtaking NCSA HTTPd as the dominant HTTP server, and has remained most popular since April 1996. In 2009, it became the first web server software to serve more than 100 million websites. Apache is developed and maintained by an open community of developers under the auspices of the Apache Software Foundation. Most commonly used on a Unix-like system (usually Linux), the software is available for a variety of operating systems besides Unix, including Microsoft Windows. Version 2.0 improved support for non-Unix, e.g. Windows and OS/2 (and eComStation). Old versions of Apache were ported to run on e.g. OpenVMS, and NetWare. Released under the Apache License, Apache is free and open-source software. As of July 2016, Apache was estimated to serve 46.41% of all active websites and 43.18% of the top million websites.
Nginx (pronounced "engine x") is software to provide a web server. It can act as a reverse proxy server for TCP, UDP, HTTP, HTTPS, SMTP, POP3, and IMAP protocols, as well as a load balancer and an HTTP cache. Created by Igor Sysoev in 2002, Nginx runs on Unix, Linux, BSD variants, OS X, Solaris, AIX, HP-UX, and Windows. Released under the terms of a BSD-like license, Nginx is free and open source software. A company of the same name was founded in 2011 to provide support. For Ruby on Rails web sites, Nginx is often deployed with Unicorn, a Rack-based web server. This combines Nginx's good performance serving static content and dealing with many slow client connections with Unicorn's ability to efficiently run dynamic page generation code.
Git is a version control system (VCS) that is used for software development and other version control tasks. As a distributed revision control system it is aimed at speed, data integrity, and support for distributed, non-linear workflows. Git was created by Linus Torvalds in 2005 for development of the Linux kernel, with other kernel developers contributing to its initial development. Its current maintainer is Junio Hamano. As with most other distributed version control systems, and unlike most client–server systems, every Git directory on every computer is a full-fledged repository with complete history and full version tracking abilities, independent of network access or a central server. Like the Linux kernel, Git is free software distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2.
SQLite is a relational database management system contained in a C programming library. In contrast to many other database management systems, SQLite is not a client-server database engine. Rather, it is embedded into the end program. SQLite is ACID-compliant and implements most of the SQL standard, using a dynamically and weakly typed SQL syntax that does not guarantee the domain integrity. SQLite is a popular choice as embedded database software for local/client storage in application software such as web browsers. It is arguably the most widely deployed database engine, as it is used today by several widespread browsers, operating systems, and embedded systems (such as mobile phones), among others. SQLite has bindings to many programming languages.
MODX (originally MODx) is a free, open source content management system and web application framework for publishing content on the world wide web and intranets. MODX is licensed under the GPL, is written in the PHP programming language, and supports MySQL and Microsoft SQL Server as the database. It was awarded Packt Publishing's Most Promising Open Source Content Management System in 2007.
WordPress is a free and open-source content management system (CMS) based on PHP and MySQL. WordPress is installed on a web server that is either part of an Internet hosting service or a network host in its own right. The first case may be a service like WordPress.com, for example, and the second case could be a computer running the software package WordPress.org. A local computer may be used for single-user testing and learning purposes. Features include a plugin architecture and a template system. WordPress was used by more than 27.5% of the top 10 million websites as of February 2017. WordPress is reportedly the most popular website management or blogging system in use on the Web, supporting more than 60 million websites. WordPress was released on May 27, 2003, by its founders, Matt Mullenweg and Mike Little, as a fork of b2/cafelog. WordPress is released under the GPLv2 (or later) license from the Free Software Foundation.